​Your dog's diet and their digestive health

Each component of your dog's food has a role to play in helping support their digestive health. Learn more about the role of diet in managing digestive sensitivities in your dog.
Adult Golden Retriever standing outdoors eating from a red bowl

Just like humans, dogs can suffer from digestive problems which cause discomfort, unpleasant symptoms and sometimes wider-reaching health issues. Their diet is an importand part of helping manage digestive sensitivities and maintaining a healthy digestive system.

How a dog’s digestion works

Along each stage of the digestive system, your dog digests and absorbs nutrients from its food. One of the main organs which does this is the small intestine, which has a very large surface area with different types of cells to make nutrient absorption as effective as possible. In the small intestine, your dog absorbs fats, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals, and completes the digestion and absorption of protein which begins in the stomach.

Across these organs, microflora – also known as ‘beneficial’ bacteria – contribute to a healthy and functioning digestive system. The bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by genetics and other factors, including diet. In the small intestine, these beneficial bacteria are accompanied by cells which act as a protective immune response against foreign bodies or ‘bad’ bacteria.

Your dog is naturally tolerant of their own microflora, but if they develop an intolerance this can lead to chronic gastrointestinal issues. Similarly, if the immune response cells begin to react to things it would normally tolerate, your dog’s digestive system may begin to develop an intolerance to normally harmless elements, such as food.

Puppy Beagle standing indoors eating from a red bowl.

Your dog’s diet and their digestion

The food you give to your dog can affect their digestion and the microflora in their gut. A varied diet can cause unnecessary strain on your dog’s digestion and cause problems.

Their food needs to be highly digestible to avoid digestive sensitivities, and contain easily-absorbed essential nutrients. One dietary component is protein, which is commonly provided by animal sources, such as chicken; high-quality manufactured foods will use proteins which are more easily digested and less likely to trigger digestive problems. For example, wheat gluten is highly digestible, and is a highly concentrated protein source.


Fibre is an important part of your dog’s diet but needs to be balanced. Fibre can be used as part of their diet to help regulate movement in their large intestine and improve stool quality, which is particularly helpful if your dog has digestive sensitivities or poor stool quality.

Fibres can support healthy gastrointestinal function and help your dog feel full after meals. Prebiotics are a type of fibre and can help beneficial bacteria grow and thrive in your dog’s system.


Carbohydrates are an important component of your dog’s food, as they provide a great source of energy and carbohydrate sources in your dog’s food should be highly digestible.


Fat can be a useful element in managing your dog’s digestive sensitivities. High fat diets can be effective in giving your dog the energy it needs without it having to consume large quantities of food. However, lower fat diets can help in instances of stomach sensitivity or when your dog has a sensitivity to dietary fat.

If you’ve recognised your dog is suffering from a digestive issue, make sure to visit your vet; they will be able to advise you about a diet for your dog which can help maintain a healthy digestive system.

Jack Russel Terrier adult standing in black and white on a white background

Find a vet

If you have any concerns about your dog’s health, consult a vet for professional advice.

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